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The female reproductive system is complicated but fascinating and is one of the most vital parts of the human reproductive process. It has the capability to function intimately with nearly every other body system for the purpose of reproduction. Although a man’s sperm is needed to reproduce, the fetus develops inside a woman and she delivers the child.

Females are born with a fixed number of potential ova (female sex cells, also called egg cells). However, it is not until after the onset of puberty, typically around age 12, that these cells are mature enough to sustain life. The cells ripen on a regular basis, but, usually, only one is released each month until a woman reaches menopause. Menopause commonly begins between the ages of 45 and 55.



The major organs of the female reproductive system include:

  • Vagina: This muscular tube receives the penis during intercourse and a baby leaves the uterus through it during childbirth.
  • Uterus: This organ holds and nourishes a developing fetus, if an egg was properly fertilized.
  • Ovaries: The female gonads, the ovaries produce ova. When an egg matures, it is released from the ovary down into a fallopian tube.
  • Fallopian tubes: These small tubes transport ova from the ovaries to the uterus. This is where an egg waits to be fertilized.

The female reproductive organs are associated with a variety of disorders, including:

  • INFECTIONS: Briefly, infectious complications associated with female reproductive organs include, but are not limited to, vaginal and vulvar candidiasis, herpes simplex lesions, Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection, Chlamydia trachomatis infection, trichomoniasis, bacterial vaginosis, tubo-ovarian abscesses, and pelvic inflammatory disease.
  • DISORDERS OF MENSTRUATION: Much attention is brought to disorders of menstruation because these affect many women at some point in their lives. Premenstrual disorder and premenstrual dysphoric disorder are also problems associated with the menstrual cycle.
  • PAIN: Pain can be a common problem among women, especially those with endometriosis, multiple pelvic surgeries, and history of pelvic inflammatory disease.
  • MALIGNANCIES: Malignancies of the female reproductive organs are unfortunately common and often life-threatening.

The landscape of gynecological surgery has evolved rapidly in the past few years. New surgical and non-surgical options are emerging for a variety of gynecological conditions, with major emphasis on minimally invasive and non-invasive options.

The main goal of minimally invasive surgery is to avoid a large abdominal incision. This has several benefits to the patient, which include:

  • faster and easier recovery time
  • less pain
  • less blood loss
  • decreased scar tissue formation

There are several different types of Gynecological Surgery and surgical approaches which our surgeons apply.The type used depends on the problem being treated.

At Salus our Surgeons employ the following Surgical Approaches for the various conditions they perform.