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What is Urological Surgery?

UROLOGICAL SURGERY is the integration of surgical activities for the Pelvis primarily for the treatment of obstructions, dysfunction, malignancies and inflammatory diseases of;




What is the Urinary Tract and how does it work?

The urinary tract is the body’s drainage system for removing urine, which is composed of wastes and extra fluid. In order for normal urination to occur, all body parts in the urinary tract need to work together in the correct order.


The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs, each about the size of a fist. They are located just below the rib cage, one on each side of the spine. Every day, the kidneys filter about 120 to 150 quarts of blood to produce about 1 to 2 quarts of urine. The kidneys work around the clock; a person does not control what they do.


Ureters are the thin tubes of muscle, found one on either side of the bladder and carry urine from each of the kidneys to the bladder.


The bladder, located in the pelvis between the pelvic bones, is a hollow, muscular, balloon-shaped organ that expands as it fills with urine. Although a person does not control kidney function, a person does control when the bladder empties. Bladder emptying is known as urination. The bladder stores urine until the person finds an appropriate time and place to urinate. A normal bladder acts like a reservoir and can hold 1.5 to 2 cups of urine. How often a person needs to urinate depends on how quickly the kidneys produce the urine that fills the bladder. The muscles of the bladder wall remain relaxed while the bladder fills with urine. As the bladder fills to capacity, signals sent to the brain tell a person to find a toilet soon. During urination, the bladder empties through the urethra, located at the bottom of the bladder.

Three sets of muscles work together like a dam, keeping urine in the bladder between trips to the bathroom.

The first set is the muscles of the urethra itself. The area where the urethra joins the bladder is the bladder neck. The bladder neck, composed of the second set of muscles known as the internal sphincter, helps urine stay in the bladder. The third set of muscles is the pelvic floor muscles, also referred to as the external sphincter, which surround and support the urethra.

To urinate, the brain signals the muscular bladder wall to tighten, squeezing urine out of the bladder. At the same time, the brain signals the sphincters to relax. As the sphincters relax, urine exits the bladder through the urethra.

The urinary tract is important because it filters wastes and extra fluid from the bloodstream and removes them from the body. Normal, functioning kidneys

  • prevent the buildup of wastes and extra fluid in the body
  • keep levels of electrolytes, such as potassium and phosphate, stable
  • make hormones that help regulate blood pressure
  • make red blood cells
  • keep bones strong

The ureters, bladder, and urethra move urine from the kidneys and store it until releasing it from the body.

Conditions that commonly dictate the need for Urological Surgery include neurogenic sources like spinal cord injury; injuries to the pelvic organs; chronic digestive and urinary diseases; as well as prostate infections and inflammations.

There are many other common chronic and malignant diseases that can benefit from resection, surgical augmentation, or surgery to clear obstructions. These conditions impact the digestive, renal, and reproductive systems.

Until the late twentieth century, urological surgeries usually involved open abdominal surgery with full incision, lengthy hospital stays, and long recovery periods.  Today Urological Surgery has been revolutionized by striking advances in Urodynamic Diagnostic Systems. Changes in these areas have been particularly beneficial for Urologic Surgery:


These procedural and imaging advances have brought the field of Urology to a highly active and innovative stage, where surgery is less traumatic with shortened hospitalizations.

Minimally Invasive Surgeries are the norm in many cases with new Laparoscopic and Robotically Assisted procedures developed each year.

Our Surgeons at Salus perform the following Urological Procedures to remedy these conditions, specializing in minimally invasive and robotic-assisted procedures, including:

  • Laparoscopic or Robotic Prostatectomy, to remove the prostate
  • Laparoscopic or Robotic Nephrectomy, to remove a kidney
  • Laparoscopic or Robotic Cystectomy, to remove the bladder
  • Microscopic vaso-vasostomy (vasectomy reversal)
  • Microscopic Testicular sperm retrieval, for in vitro fertilization
  • Radiofrequency Ablation (RFA) of kidney tumors
  • Shock Wave Lithotripsy of kidney stones
  • Transurethral and Percutaneous removal of kidney stones
  • Urinary sling, to treat female urinary stress incontinence

The Urinary Tract, as previously mentioned, includes several organs which carry diseases, injuries and inflammations. Our Surgeons at Salus perform the following Urological Procedures to remedy these conditions: